Summary: China’s investment projects known as the ‘new Silk Road’ (or One Belt, One Road, OBOR) are envisioning a new stage of the global development. The economic relations are on strengthening between China and the rest of Asia, as well as Africa and Europe as a prospected result of the program, the Silk Road Economic Belt, which targets the development of rails, roads, maritime- and airports, and energy infrastructure. As a result of the initiative the Chinese economy may increase in the future and its domestic consumption may expand. Besides, its impact on economic development in western Chinese areas may be particularly important, which aims to reduce the dominance of the east coast of the spatial structure and to export the excess capacities of Chinese enterprises. Furthermore, China’s prospective change in its geostrategic ambitions are reflected in the program, which might predict the re-balancing of the US’s global power in economic terms. This article exposes the planned infrastructural development projects and their funding resources in a way to enlighten the motives behind the ‘new Silk Road’, its potential risks and its possible influence on the global economy and political landscape as well.
Kulcsszavak: Európa, Kína, infrastruktúra, kereskedelempolitika, nemzetközi kereskedelem, Selyemút
Keywords: infrastructure, international trade, trade policy, Europe, China, Silk Road
JEL kód: F13, H54, N55, N74
Summary: Because of the acute shortage of capital and low investment rate in most Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries, foreign direct flow played a crucial role in the economies of the region during the interwar period. As far as the serious consequences of First World War were concerned, the majority of the countries in the region with the exception of Czechoslovakia could stabilize their economies with the credits of the League of Nations and by foreign loans. The objective of my essay is to analyse the share of foreign direct investments in the economies of seven Central, Eastern and South-eastern European countries (Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania) and to evaluate the political and economic motivation of the net creditors (Great Britain, France and United States). It is also essential explain the statement of the literature, which emphasizes the economic backwardness of the region by the inadequate use of foreign loans and its high interest burden (between 7 and 10 percent). No doubt that after 1918 the Central and Eastern European countries could get credits with unfavourable and politically motivated conditions in the international financial markets, but the foreign loans, which were given by the Entente powers after First World War (Great Britain, France and United States) were spent not expediently but on luxury consumption and on repayment of interest burden of public debts. However, the share of foreign capital in strategic sectors (mining, industry and transport) reached between 50 and 80 percent in most of the countries of the region, it didn’t promote the modernization of their national economies. During the interwar period Czechoslovakia was an exception, because as a net capital exporter it succeeded investing in Yugoslavia, Romania and Hungary. Because of lack of appropriate data one of the most difficult questions is to give a precise overview of the share of foreign direct investment in the national economies. According to the official position of national and international literature and the available data also confirm that public loans surpassed the amount of foreign direct investments. Because of the limited extent of this essay I will not deal with the theories, which emphasize the semiperipheral development of Central, Eastern and South-eastern European and the consequences of its isolation from the world economy in the interwar period. I think to understand the economic development of Central and Eastern European countries in the XXIst century it’s essential explain the main reasons of economic backwardness in the region.
Kulcsszavak: Kelet-Közép- és Délkelet-Európa, két világháború közötti időszak, külföldi tőke szerepe
Keywords: Central, Eastern and South-eastern Europe, Interwar period, the role of foreign capital
JEL kód: N24
Summary: We were not out of the global financial crisis of 2007 yet, the rebuilding process has not come to an end, when a new player appeared in the international news: the Islamic State of Iraq and Syrian (ISIS). First we thought it was only a part of al-Kaida known for a longer period of time. But it soon became a determinative player of the Near East geopolitical play. But what is it? In the article I search the answer that can be used in theory and in practice, on the base of the studies published about the ISIS. It calls itself a state in its name, and not only the media, but every politician at international political level uses its name given by itself, but they define it as a terrorist organ, not as a state. To answer the question first we need to clarify the terminology. Is it a state? Is it a terrorist organ? Or something else? Which one is better to classify? To this point it is pure theory. But it is the question of an applied science, business, politics and diplomacy if the answer given by strict theoretical examination can be accepted or it needs some modifications so that it corresponds to our goals and interests. To answer this question it is very important to know our real goals and interests and that decision-makers do not lie at least themselves. To make business with somebody it is not necessary to stand on the same or on similar basic. Business can go on without trust, but in this case more resources have to be invested to safety. We can make a well-based decision only if we know the advantages and disadvantages of the certain business relationship - and if circumstances change, we can modify our decision if it is necessary. Finally I analyze the question, which reasons and effects created ISIS, and if we defeat it, will it be only a bad passing memory, or we can calculate with its reappearance, possibly under a new name.
Kulcsszavak: Iszlám Állam, Közel-Kelet, diplomácia
Keywords: ISIS, Near East, diplomacy
JEL kód: Z10
Summary: A strong concentration process took place on food-chain and food market both in Hungary and internationally in the last decades. Most of the producers - because of their small sizes - could not reach the benefits of size economies, so they cannot create supplier relations with the great food stores dealing with large quantities of products, or they can do it only with difficulties. The short supply chains can mean a breakthrough-opportunity for the small sized producers. The examination of the short food chains is actual, there is an increasing role of these chains in the supplying with food, in the budget of European Union’s 2014 - 2020. The short food chain has ag-political assistance. One highlighted actual aim of the European Common Agricultural Policy is to improve the agricultural producers’ positions in the food supply chains. In the actual budgetary period Hungary has created a thematic project in the Rural Development Program, in order to support the short supply chains. The appreciation of this subject contributed to its scientific investigation. The short supply chains can effect positively not only the rural areas but the urban areas, as well. Shortening the logistic processes means a meeting the requirements of new paradigms: “glocalization” or the “de-growth’. Supporting of the short food chains can result in economical advantages both in the rural and the city development. This study expound the market positions of small sized producers, farms, and their marketing difficulties. It is shortly expound the judgement of short food chains based on my previous researches, experiences and the literature dealing with this subject. It can be declared that the efficiency of the short food chains depends on sizes, attitudes, and the financial positions the participant sellers. Trading on local markets is a common example of short supply chains in Hungary, but other innovative methods of short chain-trading like webshops or “community supported agriculture” is not widely known or widely used. The successfulness of the short food chains is depend on the costumers too, who prefer the purchasing at the trading opportunities of these chains. On the basis of the literature it cannot be declared whether supporting short food chains multiply the development of rural economy or the more developed regions allow the existence of short food chains, due to the higher level of society.
Kulcsszavak: rövid ellátási lánc, rövid élelmiszerlánc, termelő, fogyasztó, értékesítés
Keywords: short supply chain, short food chain, producer, consumer, sale
JEL kód: Q13
Summary: Background of research: Opportunities through sports appear as challenges of XXI. centuries which open further doors in sector of health, education, career, talent management, corporate. Sport is a key element of economic growth, which includes the impact of economic indicators of organizations, human capital development, and sustainability. Economic importance of sports detected at the macro level in the national economy, in income, employment, and in consumer spending levels. Sport as an integrating force appears in disadvantaged social groups, thereby also get priority for social inclusion. Integration of sports studies show that sport provides an opportunity to break out of a minority and a disadvantaged social sphere. Young people who socialised in sports are a determining force for talent management which results successful cooperation in business. New direction of Study using the previous research’s results, which examines the civil enforcement of athletes, respect of athletes, companies and impact on the local economy. Aims is to explore the region’s athletes how they can enforce his skills in the labor market. Research studies in regional context of athletic opportunities for those with the talent further utilization; how to facilitate enforcement the past of athletes. The method of the research is survey supplemented by interviews. Results: In study of interconnection ofathlete, company and the local sport economy we want new items to uncover that will help the athletes to participate succees in civil life, strengthening of companies human capital, increase the region’s talent retention force. Novelty value of research outlined in the fact that shows the innovative direction of the company's business strategy, the management of human capital, in this particular field of talent management. Further studies will also cover how companies in the region shall be taken into account, how to apply conscious use of sports skills in their talent management and business strategies.
Kulcsszavak: sport, tehetség menedzsment, regionális, integráció
Keywords: sport, talent management, regional, integration
JEL kód: M14
Summary: Since there’s a race for customers on the market of the consumer goods, cities of the 21st century compete for the inhabitants, tourists, investors and companies. In this competition a huge scale of city marketing tools are available, the image and good reputation of the city, their conscious framing are one of the biggest feats of arms. The economy of the dynamically developing city, Győr is based after several system changes on the automobile industry. Its main leg is the important international company with headquarter in Győr since 1993, the Audi Hungaria Zrt. (AH); other important counterforts are the suppliers connecting organically to this. Therefore no wonder, that the present of the city, the economic prosperity have their mark not only in the economic index numbers, but in the image of the city and in the identity of its inhabitants as well. The positive effect of the blooming economical background can be seen on the zero-converging unemployment numbers, on the hotel facilities being fully booked on weekdays. On the other hand, there is a growing need for qualified work force, for free time tourists out of the high-season and on weekends. To attract young, high-qualified new inhabitants, AH must show up in the image of the city. But are the tourists willing to discover a destination with a definite economical reputation? In order to attract more free time tourists, how should the city balance between being the 3rd richest city on monuments in Hungary and the centre of the car-manufacturing industry at the same time? Nowadays, more and more Hungarian cities are dealing with managing their reputation with scientific integrity, among others the city of Győr, where this ambition is a result of the cooperation of all stakeholders. According to these, the aim of the research is to analyse the reputation of the city with the tool of content analysis. In the research I try to figure out, what kind of effects the dynamically developing car manufacture AH on the reputation, image of the city of Győr has. In the study I demonstrate and elaborate the main corporate and city reputation definitions and analysing methods, I analyse and evaluate the main marketing communicational tools, and finally, I draw conclusions about the cooperation and make proposals about the future steps.
Kulcsszavak: hírnév, stakeholder, marketingkommunikációs eszközök
Keywords: reputation, stakeholder, headquarter, impact assessment, marketing communication tools
JEL kód: M14
Summary: The paper focuses on the emergence and relevance of the aspect of sustainability in the guiding documents of the multilateral development banks with special regard to the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). It presents sustainability as a new global challenge and its actuality, economic, social and environmental pillars. It gives an overview on the UN sustainable development initiatives, the previous and current set of sustainability goals and their changes. It estimates the approximate financing need to reach these goals, initiates possible sources and forms. It analyses the role of the multilateral development banks and their linkages to the sustainability goals. It sheds light on when and how the two selected multilateral development banks - the ADB and the EBRD - adopted the sustainability requirement into their policies. The method of the study is using original sources and literature. Results show, that multilateral development banks pay a special attention to sustainability and demonstrate their commitment to it. Their approach though are different due to their diverse situation, history, level of development, culture and needs. It remains an open question though, if their committment is sufficient enough for the transition to a sustanable economy in reality.
Kulcsszavak: fenntartható fejlődés, fejlesztésfinanszírozás, multilaterális fejlesztési bankok
Keywords: sustainable development, development finance, multilateral development banks
JEL kód: O44, F33, G21