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European chemical bulletinVol. 6., No. 12. (2017.)


Classical and advanced chemical sciences

  • Imran Hussain ,
    Sumati Anthal ,
    M. B. Deshmukh ,
    Rajni Kant :

    The title compound 3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-9-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydroacridine-1,8-dione, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna21 with unit cell parameters: a = 13.669(5) Å, b = 14.753(5) Å, c = 10.043(5) Å, Z=8. The crystal structure is solved by Direct methods and refined by full matrix least squares procedure to a final R value of 0.0982 for 2602 observed reflections. The crystal structure is stabilized by N1–H1⋅⋅⋅O2, O3–H3⋅⋅⋅O1 and C13–H13⋅⋅⋅O3 hydrogen bonds.

    Keywords: Crystal structure; Acridine; Direct methods; Hydrogen bonds; Ring conformations

  • A. K. Elziaty ,
    G. Bassioni ,
    A. M. A. Hassan ,
    H. A. Derbala :

    Enaminonitrile derivative, 6-amino-4-(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbonitrile (1) was synthesized. This compound was utilized as a building block for the synthesis of new 3-methylpyrazolopyran moiety incorporated with different heterocycles involving pyrimidinone, oxazinone, and iminopyrimidine, in addition to novel derivatives including diacetyl derivative (5), benzoyl derivative (6), carbamodithioic acid (10) and urea derivative (13). Spectral techniques, FT-IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis were used to characterize the synthesized compounds. Screening and evaluation of these products as antimicrobial agents showed that the derivatives 5, 6, 10, and 13 possess a potent activity.

    Keywords: Enaminonitrile, pyranopyrazole, pyrimidinone, oxazinone, antimicrobial agents

  • Adel M. Kamal El-Dean ,
    Remon M. Zaki ,
    Shaban M. Redwan ,
    Ahmed F. Saber :

    4-Amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carboxamide has been synthesized by an innovative method. The aminoamide derivative was gently refluxed with chloroacetyl chloride under neat conditions followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate solution to afford the chloromethyl pyrimidinone compound. The chloromethyl pyrimidinone derivative was converted to the thiol derivative by the reaction with thiourea in ethanol. The thiol compound was alkylated with α-halocompounds such as ethyl chloroacetate, chloroacetone, phenacyl bromide and 2-chloro-4,6-dimethylnicotinonitrile to afford the corresponding S-alkylated compounds. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental and spectral analyses containing FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and mass spectroscopy.

    Keywords: Pyrazole, thienopyrazole, pyrimidothienopyrazole, synthesis

Materials and environmental chemistry

  • Saad S.M. Hassan ,
    Ayman K. Kamel ,
    Nassar S. Awwad ,
    Awaad H. A. Aboterika ,
    Ibrahim S. Yahia :
    Adsorbent for efficient removal of mercury(ii) from aqueous solution558-563en [563.21 kB - PDF]EPA-02286-00060-0040

    Decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for health and ecosystem protection. Removal of Hg(II) from the aqueous solution by ZnO:S has been investigated and elucidated. The effect of various parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial adsorbate concentration has been studied and optimized. The optimized parameters for metal ion are pH value of 2.4, the equilibrium time was attained after 30 min, and the maximum removal percentage was achieved at an adsorbent loading weight of 0.08 g. It was found that the adsorption capacity of ZnO:S increased with increase in the initial mercury concentration. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to be in good agreement with Freundlich isotherm model.

    Keywords: Removal, mercury, zinc oxide, sulfur, wastewater

  • Safwat H. Shakir Hanna ,
    Magdy T. Khalil :

    The Ecological Human Imprint (EHI) is a measuring tool to assess the carrying capacity of an area with regard to the use of the planet's natural resources. Additionally, it will be acting as a feedback to policies and strategies utilized in measuring the sustainable development. It will measure the ability of policies that can be implemented to reduce environmental impact. The new index (EHI) is an important measure for calculating the human demands and impacts on environment. In this respect, the EHI is a function of all the parameters that interact between the power of ecosystem productivity, human interactions and activities on a particular ecosystem or the demand from that ecosystem. The present paper is covering and analysing the ecosystems’ productivity and the human demand from the ecosystems. It includes comprehensive analyses in measuring the possibility of capabilities of the Egyptian ecosystems to provide goods and services to its population. Additionally, we have discussed the models that can be used in measuring the sustainability of ecosystems and, in particular, the natural resources of Egypt. Further, a comprehensive model called EHI and national resources changes of Egypt (EHI-NR-EG) has been formulated. This describes the status of the ecosystems’ productivity and assesses the impact of change of any parameter that affects the current status of natural resources and their availability to human population within the Egyptian boundaries. In addition, attempts have been made to provide some answers to issues which arises due to the impact of human activities on natural resources

    Keywords: Ecological human imprint, ecological sustainability, modelling.

  • Amaury de Souza ,
    Zaccheus Olaofe ,
    Shiva Prashanth Kumar Kodicherla ,
    Priscilla Ikefuti ,
    Luciana Nobrega ,
    Ismail Sabbah :

    The predominant air pollutants in urban cities are (NOx = (NO + NO2), O3 and (OX = (O3 + NO2). This research focused on pollutant variables that cause damage to human health as well as to the environment. Thus, seven statistical models {Weibull (W), Gamma (G), Log-normal (L), Frechet (Fr), Burr (Bur), Rayleigh (R) and Rician (Ri)} were chosen to fit the observations of the air pollutants. An average hourly data from one year to 2015 were considered. In addition, performance indicators {Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE)} were applied, to determine the quality criteria for adjustment of the frequency distributions. The best distribution that adapts to the observations of the variables was the RICIAN distribution, the log-normal distribution for COD. The probabilities of the concentration of exceedances were calculated, (predicted) from the cumulative density function (cdf) obtained from the best fit distributions.

    Keywords: Statistical analysis; distribution of probability; performance indicators; air pollutants

Chemical and biological aspects of life

  • Inara Nokalna ,
    Alise Silova ,
    Ilona Vanaga ,
    Imants Kalnins ,
    Andrejs Skesters :

    More than 40 volatile compounds with pharmacological effects (including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, radioprotective activity and improvement of cardiovascular risk factors, etc) are detected in the sea buckthorn. The most thoroughly investigated parts of sea buckthorn are berries – their juice and oil, but less is known about the bioactives of the other plant parts. This study aims to determine antioxidative (AO) and antiradical (AR) properties of sea buckthorn sprouts. The study results show differences between spring and autumn sprouts’ collection as well as water and 70% ethanol extracts. Further, in vivo research needs to be done to provide a full understanding of sea buckthorn sprouts’ AO and AR effects.

    Keywords: sea buckthorn, antioxidants, antiradicals

  • Prashant Kumar Dhakad ,
    Pramod Kumar Sharma ,
    Sokindra Kumar :

    The effect of Capparis decidua(Forssk.)Edgew aqueous extract on the Wistar rat testes was investigated with a view to evaluating the pharmacological basis for the use of Capparis decidua hydroalcoholic extract as an aphrodisiac. Wistar rats were divided in the following experimental groups- control group (1 mL kg-1), sildenafil citrate treated (5 mg kg-1), C. decidua (100 mg kg-1), C. decidua (200 mg kg-1), per se group (only C. decidua 200 mg kg-1). The hydroalcoholic extract of root, stem and leaves of C. decidua was studied for their effect on the body and secondary sexual organ weight, spermatogenesis, and serum testosterone level male rats. The animals were allowed free access to drinking solution during the 28 days period of exposure. At the end of the experimental period, rats were sacrificed, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate glands were excised and weighed, and serum testosterone level was recorded. The testes underwent histological examination. Oral administration of the extract in Wistar rats showed significant dose-dependent influence on serum testosterone level (P 0.001) and spermatogenic effects in extract treated rats groups by increasing the weights of secondary sexual organs(P 0.001).

    Keywords: Capparis decidua, aphrodisiac, serum testosterone level, body weight, secondary sexual organ weight