Classical and Advanced Chemical Sciences
Chalcone derivative (E)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (C23H22O2) crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group 'P21/c ' and unit cell parameters: a = 15.1595(14) Å, b = 7.6644(7) Å, c = 15.8634(15) Å, β=96.942(7)°.The crystal structure was solved using direct methods and refined by full matrix least squares procédures to a final R-factor of 0.0911 for 1591 observed reflections. The enone moiety adopts E conformation with respect to C12=C13 bond.The molecules in the unit cell are linked by weak C–H···O and π-π interactions. The molecule contains two C–H···O intramolecular interactions which stabilizes the crystal structure
Keywords: Chalcone; butoxyphenyl; crystallography; direct methods; enone; intramolecular interactions
Materials and Environmental Chemistry
Magnetic composite mineral sorbents based on saponite, spondyle, palygorskite clays and magnetite were created. The ability of magnetic sorbents to remove tripolyphosphate and hexametaphosphate from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature and shaking time. The kinetics of adsorption process data was examined using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Boyd-Adamson internal diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption kinetics is best described by the pseudo second-order model with good correlation (R2 ≈ 1.00). The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich equations. The experimental data well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model. It was found that calculated adsorption capacities of magnetic composites relatively tripolyphosphate (550-620 mg g-1) and hexametaphosphate (670-730 mg g-1) were good agreed with experimentally obtained values. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0 were also determined. It was indicated that the adsorption of polyphosphates was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature and the physical nature of the process was confirmed. Thus, cheap magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite, which not only quickly separated from the solution by magnetic separation, but effectively removed polyphosphates were obtained.
Keywords: Composite magnetic sorbent, natural clay, magnetite, adsorption, magnetic separation
The nanosized powders formed on the steel surface in contact with aqueous solutions of zinc and nickel inorganic salts have been studied using an X-ray diffraction method, thermal analytical measurements (TG / DTG, DTA), scanning electron microscopy and magnetometry. It has been shown that a single mineral phase of a non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite is formed when zinc and nickel nitrate solutions were used as the dispersion medium, but in the presence of chloride-containing salts three mineral phases (spinel ferrite, lepidocrocite, and goethite) are formed in the phase composition of the surface powders. When sulfate solutions were chosen as the dispersion medium the mixed hydroxysulfate layered double hydroxides (LDHs) simultaneously appeared among other components of the powders. Due to cation exchange between Fe2+ and Zn2+ or Ni2+ the mixed LDH structures achieved stability against further oxidation and thermal transformation. Hence, the presence of mixed LDHs in the phase composition of the powders significantly complicates the obtaining of homogenous superparamagnetic 3d-metal doped spinel ferrite and iron oxide powders.
Keywords: Steel surface, nanoparticles, spinel ferrites, thermal transformation, superparamagnetics
Arrays of Ni nanotubes have been synthesized in pores of polyethylene terephthalate membranes by electrochemical method. Morphological and structural characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy, gas permeability, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that Ni nanotubes have lateral dimensions corresponding to the parameters of the membrane pores (length ~12 μm and pore diameters 400 nm) with the thickness of tube-walls in the range from 60 nm to 160 nm, depending on the deposition conditions. Ni nanotubes have the face-centered cubic lattice phase. The dependence of crystal structure parameters on temperature and voltage of synthesis has been established. Dependences of main magnetic parameters (coercivity value and magnetization of saturation and squatness) on deposition parameters have been studied. Significant magnetic anisotropy was found, but no evidence of influence of deposition parameters on magnetic properties was found.
Keywords: Ion-track membrane, electrodeposition, Ni nanotubes, magnetic properties
Chemical and Biological Aspects of Life
The genus Alcea consists more than 40 subspecies. Most of them were partly studied but some of them were not. In this review we will introduce the traditional medicinal knowledge and uses of this genus, summarize and discuss the modern research reports of the medicinal/biological activities of the various subspecies. Special attention will be paid to A. rosea, the most investigated subspecies of this genus. Clear emphasis will be laid upon some reported natural products isolated from subspecies of Alcea. Future possible studies will be suggested.
Keywords: Alcea, traditional medicine, Alcea rosea, polysaccharides, polyphenols, anthocyanins
Using the method of water diffusion, the DWI (Diffusion Weighted Imaging), is one of the advances in clinical research of human brain. It can help neurosurgery to avoid the different kind of risks, for instance, disability of walking, talking, moving the arms, and so on. Human brain research in this direction makes possible to make tumour surgery using the DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) mapping. The experiments done with phantom give us the histograms which shows the results in form of homogeneous signals in different areas of the phantom which means that human resources can be replaced with phantom and experiments done with it. This advantage gives us reason to develop this approach further.
Keywords: DWI, MRI, diffusion, DTI, experiments with Phantom
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Biotechnology
In the current study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH value, feed flow, concentration of the solution and the applied pressure for the removal of copper(II), iron(III) and their mixtures for the production of drinking water by nanofiltration membrane was investigated. The results show that it is possible to extract all of the iron (III) and copper (II) at the same time to a salt mixture of Fe 50% - salt Cu 50% for concentration 4 ppm, pH = 4.5 and pressure = 6 bars. The best results for the copper(II) were obtained for the various mixtures at the pressure of 6 bars at varying pH.
Keywords: extraction; nanofiltration; copper(II); iron(III); mixture; synergism
Theoretical and Computational Chemistry
The application of methodology of spatial-energy interactions (P-parameter) to main stages of photosynthesis is given. Their energy characteristics are calculated. The values obtained correspond to the reference and experimental data.
Keywords: Spatial-energy parameter, free radicals, structural interactions, photosynthesis