Nemzet és nemzetépítés a 19. században
Koselleck's concept of nation in the light of the theories of nationalism. reflections on the article "Folk, Nation, Nationalismus, Masse"
The aim of this sudy is to make some reflections concerning the connection between a segment of the German Begriff sgeschichte and the so-called "nationalism theories". The article "Folk, Nation, Nationalismus, Masse", which is one of the Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe' longest articles, makes some fundamental statements about the national phenomenon and it seems to be interesting to look at the historiographic background of these statements by examining the impressive historiographic references used by the authors. In doing so, we can see that Koselleck and his co-authors make their conclusions without or rarely citing the the anglo-saxon works that are traditionally considered as the most relevant results of the theories of nationalism (especially the modernist and the ethnosymbolist perspectives). The fact that the authors of the article barely cite the anglo-saxon literature is even more interesting due to the considerable similarities and overlappings. These similarities involve for instance the genesis of nationalism and the concept of nation, the typology of these concepts, or the problem of the creation and transfers of the notions in question. Despite the fact that the method of Begriffsgeschichte is becoming a more and more important approach in the empirical researches concerning the national phenomenon, a lot of theoretical questions arise. This study tries to highlight the possible perspectives of such theoretical researches.
An Experiment for the Anthropological View of an Essentialist National Image
The present study attempts to examine the internal mechanisms of the creation and reproduction processes of an essentialist national representation. It examines the stereotyped Hungarian image that was widely disseminated in the nineteenth century through the analysis of three examples of textual representation taken from the weekly paper entitled Vasárnapi Újság. The study aims to demonstrate characteristics of national representation practices, which facilitate a better understanding of the cultural logic of nation-building.
Court and Nation: Research Questions
The study's introduction, placing the problem of of rulers' courts in the context of state formation research, points out that the nineteenth- and twentieth-century survival and changing functions of this early modern institution can be interpreted by the nationalism theories of the 1980s. Furthermore, the study, focusing on the relationship between rulers' courts and nations in nineteenth-century Hungarian history, establishes two possible strands of research: (1) the analysis of nineteenthcentury historians' image of medieval and early modern Hungarian courts, and closely associated to this, (2) the contemporary perceptions of the nineteenthcentury Habsburg court in Buda, the Hungarian state capital, determined by the ambiguous relations, conflict and accomodation, between the ruling dynasty and the Hungarian nation. The present work refers to the case study of the nineteenthcentury perceptions of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Transylvanian rulers and their court in Gyulafehérvár in the context of two travel accounts promoting knowledge about Transylvania and its history. On one hand, these suggest that national historiography established the splendid image of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Transylvanian court in Gyulafehérvár by ignoring the humble nineteenth-century realities of the town's urban life and monuments. On the other hand, the purpose of reminiscing about the glorious past of the Transylvanian court was to conpensate for the lack of early modern and nineteenth-century 'national' kingdom and court. Gyulafehérvár, thus, became the polar opposite of Vienna and Buda as the representatives of royal Habsburg power – a compensative mirage of the desire for national independence.
Popular Theatre in Nation-Building: The Establishment of a Professional Discourse (1861–1881)
The term 'popular theatre', existing from the time of the French Revolution onwards, can be interpreted as an actual type of theatre, an aesthetic theory, a communal practice, or as a social/political function. This study focuses on a single aspect of this field: it explores concepts of popular theatre in the second half of the nineteenth century in relation to the Hungarian theatrical profession, specifically through the writing of the actor and director György Molnár. In the framework of discourse analysis, this study is aimed at exploring some categories and arguments that the founder of the Popular Theatre of Buda used in order to elevate this new type of institution to the ranks of the other national institutions that were in the making at the time. The sole focus on the pamphlets and two relevant monographs by Molnár is justified by the fact that as the leader and 'theoretician' of the Popular Theatre (operating between 1861–64 and 1867– 70), he established the discourse of popular theatre in the tasks of the nation-building programme. Elements of this discourse existed at least until 1945, primarily in theatre press. The social historical significance of this subject is also suggested by the fact that the forms of popular theatrical entertainment had the biggest impact on the masses before motion pictures. Consequently, their role in the 'creation of traditions', which happened parallel to nation-building in the second half of the nineteenth century, was of crucial importance.
Social Sciences and National Spirit: Notes on the 'Institutionalised' Approaches of National Character in the Works of Nineteenth-Century French Social Scientists (Durkheim, Renan, Monod, Fustel de Coulanges)
This study explores how certain nineteenth-century French social scientists describe the 'national' characteristics of their own scientific contributions. The aim of the article is to point out that those dominant trends of the century that discuss the universal idea of 'sciences' and the significance of the 'national question' include a separate type of discourse, whereby these two fields are reconciled from the angle of sciences or science policy. This discourse, often a consequence of political events itself, strives to assess those criteria, which define the operation and organisation of social sciences in a given society, and national differences between these are revealed exactly as a result of this approach. In this context, while retaining their characteristics, questions of 'nation' and 'national spirit' are subordinated to the examination of those criteria of scientific knowledge production that shape these disciplines in a given society. While this study demonstrates the presence of this discourse in the works of eminent French social scientists (Durkheim, Renan, Monod, Fustel de Coulanges), it discusses the 'institutionalised' approach of national characteristics from this specific context.
The 1831 Cholera Epidemic in Tabán: Demographic Analysis of the Tabán Catholic Parish
I demonstrate the impact of the cholera epidemic through the historical demographic analysis of one of the 'suburbs' of Buda, using the death certificates of the Tabán Catholic Parish. Data was examined from several aspects in order to gain detailed insight into the magnitude and intensity of the epidemic, as well as the age of the victims. The parish register data, however, proved to be ambiguous: parallel to a 75% increase in the number of deaths that year, barely over 5% was indicating cholera. Other causes of death with similar symptoms to cholera and their distribution across the year 1831 were examined to determine the maximum number of cholera victims.
Mortality crises are characterised not only by increasing death rates, but by a subsequent drop in birth rates, postponing marriages, and a post-crisis increase of marriages. Thus, an objective of this study is whether these patterns are detectable in the Tabán case, and if the 1831 epidemic qualifies as a mortality crisis. Data from mass movement between 1821–1880 was used for the examination of long-term processes. In addition, the data of the 1831 Tabán epidemic was compared with those in Buda and Győr, as well as the last one in Tabán in 1872–73.
The Legend of the Gaze of State Security
Those possessing power always possess control over information. To establish continuous control over society's political, economic, cultural and information structures, their strategic aim is to become 'super-informed'. Conspirative political police, with clandestine institutional background, secret personnel and operative techniques, and the disciplinary practices of the Establishment, have always considered 'watching the enemy' as crucially important in perpetuating the power postition.
Since the events of an erstwhile present become historical facts of the future, the world of politics can be viewed as contemporary history. This study, through the analysis of Hungarian state security textbooks and training films, examines the methods of the political police of gathering information in a sphere fixated by the 'gaze of state security', as well as the ways people in this special position perceived what they were watching and how this peculiar angle influenced their view of society's events. The main focus of the study is the training of the official and cooperating conspirative agents in this special 'gaze', its concealment, and pretence.