"According to various theories of the creation of the universe, the work of the Creator either precedes or follows chaos. The first step, the first level of development, is the existence of principle, undifferentiated matter, which takes shape only the moment it is penetrated with spirit. In its strictest meaning Creation is the act which sustains even chaos itself. Time is born the moment development begins – but the act of creation lies outside the boundaries of time. In its broader meaning Creation is the energy which organizes the first shapeless but fundamental thoughts: it is the manifestation of creative energy."
From: Jean Chevalier – Alain Gheerbrant: Dictionnaire des Symboles (Paris, 1973-1974, Seghers)
"The symbolism of bones can be approached from two angles: The bone is a constant and substantial component of the body's framework, while it is also a hard outer covering protecting the inner essential element, the marrow, much like the outer shell of members of the nut family, for example the almond, protect the inner essence. In the first case the bone is strong, stable and firm, and as such symbolizes sternness, chastity, fortitude, purity, virtue and persistence."
From: Jean Chevalier – Alain Gheerbrant: Dictionnaire des Symboles (Paris, 1973-1974, Seghers)
The Development of Love
The wondrous awakening of the human spirit took place in Ancient Greece. People began to marvel, to question. They had the courage to ask the final questions: Why do things exist? Why isn't there rather nothing? Are we permitted to ask? Do facts, deeds and events have meaning?
The Evolutionary Self-Interpretation of Man
"The question of mankind's origin is a fundamental one, but not in order to find out where man comes from, but rather to recognize, in facto, who is man: declassed angel or highly developed monkey; a sleeping god or a pile of atoms? And it certainly stands to reason that he, who considers himself to have descended from an animal, is going to build a completely different world for himself than he, who is fully convinced of his divine origin."
Evolution from a Buddhist Perspective
"In the Buddhist, and generally speaking traditional Eastern, frame of thought, concepts even vaguely similar to the theory of evolution do not present themselves. This can be attributed to two fundamental reasons: The first reason is a major difference between eastern and western cosmology, and therefore each culture's concept of time. Linear time, implied by the concept of 'development', but in reality already introduced by the Christian religion, is simply uninterpretable by the eastern mind. According the eastern concept of time the cyclic character of natural phenomenon is applied to both the macrocosm and microcosm. Linear time is merely a projection of the limited human approach, which does not see beyond the narrow intervolume of individual life confined between the boundaries of birth and death. Another essential implication of Buddhist thought is the universal character of life itself. If all living beings are the manifestation of a conscious tendency, then this means that only the level of consciousness and ethical quality of the various species and living beings differs, not their ontological being. According to this concept of the universe all living beings bear intimate kinship to all other forms of life. The Buddhist outlook on life is based on the presupposition that in the endless cycle of rebirth 'all living things have once been my mother, and all living things have once been my child.' "
The Basis of History
"History is the mutual story of God and man. The heroes of old were the children of 'God's sons' and 'man's daughters'.. (Ter 6,1–4). The myths of all nations of the world are similar in this respect, from those of the Native Americans to those of the Greeks, and even those of the people of India. ... This knowledge has faded in the materialism if the Age of Enlightenment. One of its children, Friedrich Engels, even went so far as to state that history is the story of the battle of the classes, whereas once upon a time, for a majority of the religious era, there were no classes. His theory conjures the devil. First of all, with the Age of Industrialization as his point of departure, he viewed society and man as some sort of machine, a soulless animal at most, which perpetually murders and wages war according to the brainlessly extended rules of Darwinism. And there you have it: wars and genocide without precedent followed, and religious persecution, while global capitalism destroys life on Earth in order to fulfill the absurd greed of business interests. It follows, therefore, that a sky without God darkens, and matter, along with all its beings, is destroyed, because it remains uncultivated."
The Unity of Action. Is There Such a Thing as Evolution Theory Linked to Tradition?
"No, there is not. There were, and are, philosophies, which placed, and place, Matter as the primary reason for existence (for example the followers of Democritos or Charvaka, ... Marxists, etc.), but neither one of them can be associated with the system of thought of tradition. Why is there no theory of evolution that can be linked to tradition? Behind this question is another one: Can eternity have a beginning? Why, what is the reason, for its existence? The most enduring answer to this is: the object of action postulates something which carries out this action, someone who acts. And it is this trinity – the subject, predicate and object of existence – which is not separated from each other in the original state. It is called Unity."
Evolution – A Path of Increasing Freedom
"The first question which comes to mind when contemplating the acceptance or denial of evolution is one which we must all answer: 'Do I believe that God created the world?' However, the situation is not so simple, that if one answers 'Yes', then he or she automatically rejects evolution, or if the answer is 'I don't believe in any kind of divine power", then he or she automatically becomes a follower of the theory of evolution. Creation is a process. In the following article I would like to demonstrate that a believer in a divine power can at the same time believe in evolution. For after answering the first question, one must answer another one, one which is the question of all questions for all Christians: 'Do I really believe that God created the world in six days, like it says in the Bible?' "
Evolution or Creation? A Conversation with Oszkár Papp, Painter
"The concept of development takes shape in various forms, depending on the sphere of thought it is interpreted in. This is why we asked the painter Oszkár Papp, honorary president of the Hungarian Great Oriens Masonic Lodge, what he thinks about it." On the marked difference between the two theories, evolution and creationism, and what he, as a representative of Freemasonry, thinks about the difference, he answered: "Fist of all, I would like to clear up a misunderstanding: there is no definitive Freemason concept, based upon which I would be able to provide you with an answer to this question. There are several different types of Freemasonry, illustrated by the various different Lodges. ... According to the order I belong to, the freedom of thought is of primary importance. We do not accept any dogmatic theology, and it is precisely this, which is our mutual foundation."
Cosmos – Consciousness – Evolution
The theory of development – the notion of the material and spiritual evolution of man and the universe – is such an integral component of mankind that it interweaves all projections of his image of the world and the future, often forming surprising relationships. The article addresses the projection of the most modern cosmological models onto Teilhardian evolutionary theology.
The Path to Understanding. A Conversation with Márta Fehér, Philosopher of Science
Márta Fehér, professor of philosophy and head of the Philosophy Department of the Budapest Technical University speaks about the formation of modern evolution theory and the conceptual background behind it. "The transformation from viewing the world and history as an elliptic cycle to considering it a linear development, theologically linear as a matter of fact, is a result of Christianity gaining ground in Europe. According to this concept the world is developing from something into something, and there is an end point – the life of each individual and society itself is headed towards this transcendent goal. This is what the story of salvation is really about. This way of thinking was integral to the European explanation of the world and how it works, for a long period of time. ... At the same time Darwin added a new and extremely important element: evolution is not necessarily teleologic in structure, it does not 'strive' towards something. Changes have happened, but it cannot be stated, that these changes happened to make things 'better'."
Is the Theory of Evolution Winning Again? A Compilation of Excepts from the Works of György Kampis
It seems that in the field of twentieth century science everything is logical only in the light of the theory of evolution. The concept of evolution is proving to be increasingly productive and successful in the field of biology, as well as in other interdisciplinary fields only just developing. And yet the social acceptance of the theory of evolution still raises much the same controversy as it did at the time of its birth. In order to find out the reason behind this the author briefly sums up the arguments and false convictions of those who oppose it. He also analyzes the problems of new evolutionary theory, such as Intelligent Design, and questions regarding the future of the theory of evolution.
Public, Open-Air Spaces
"In the modern cities and residential areas of today there are very few spaces in the streets where people can spend their time, comfortably, for a few hours. ... Above all modern housing projects suffer greatly from the absence of spaces which could open opportunities to do so. If they have communal areas, they are generally inside, and therefore not frequented by those who live there, because these spaces demand too much of a commitment. Stepping into a closed space results in an immediate change in our personal space, with no transition, which is something we don't like."
"In larger industrial settlements the degree to which burial ceremonies affect the living, has been reduced to a minimum over the past century. ... The simple beauty of mourning the dead has been replaced by grotesque cemeteries and plastic flowers. Anything, but the reality of death itself. Small graveyards, where people were reminded of the reality of death on a daily basis, have been replaced by huge public cemeteries, situated at a great distance from the scene of our daily lives."
A jelek felnyílása
The Symbolism of the Rose
A Conversation With János Géczi, Biologist and Symbol Researcher
"Why the rose?
There are very few symbols which, according to written sources, have been present from the beginning of European civilization, and the rose is one of the few. ... The history of rose-symbolism is an imprint of the history of civilization itself. ...
I have always attempted to cleanse the rose of a certain period from all that which is superfluous, using the thought processes of the same time period: when something needed to be examined using the methods of sociology I applied them, but when botanical methods lead to the answer I applied them instead."
Mesterek és műhelyek
Converstaion with Vilmos Tánczos, Ethnographer
Vilmos Tánczos is an ethnographer and adjunct at the Anthropology and Ethnography Department of the Babes-Bolyai János University in Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca, Rumania). His primary field of research is forms of archaic prayer. "Reference works in the field emphasize that the central theme of archaic prayers is the story of the Passion, the reliving of Christ's fate, the imitatio Christi. True, this is a central motif, but in my opinion it is not the essence. The story of the Passion is a tool – prayer itself is about getting into heaven, the central problem of the medieval person's life, the desire to attain salvation."
Ökológia és ideológia
Excerpts from the Works of Tamás Molnár
The Reinstatement of the Sacred "For centuries that which we consider sacred was not confined to objects in museum collections: an ancient drinking bowl, or an exotic mask exhibited on a dusty shelf. It was alive, a central reality of civilization which permeated culture itself. The sacred found its way into the home of all members of society, independent of class or rank. It shed light on the meaning of the cosmos, architecture, and the existence of social institutions. ... In modern society evolution, progress, the coming of age of humanity, a kind of 'mutation' or 'qualitative leap' into the empire of absolute novelty – omnipresent culture – has taken the place of the sacred. As a result many consider the role of the sacred and the role of culture in society, identical."
Careful, We're Being Watched!
Technology makes our life safer, easier, and faster. But as with every advantage, this too has a price. Whether sitting in the car, working on the computer, shopping at the shopping center, or even walking down the street, everywhere we go we leave information-prints behind. And these prints can be followed.
A szám címlapja.
Az Ökotáj jelen számának illusztrálásához László Piroska fényképeit használtuk.
Az angol nyelvű összefoglalókat Nagy Piroska írta.